HEALTHBANK – What is acute kidney failure? Acute kidney failure or acute kidney injury This is a condition when the kidneys stop functioning suddenly. This disease can endanger the life of the sufferer. Therefore, it must be treated immediately to prevent permanent kidney damage.
Kidneys function to filter waste metabolic waste from the blood and dispose of it through urine. If its function stops, the waste that should be removed will accumulate in the body. What is acute kidney failure, its causes and symptoms? Here’s the explanation.
Causes of Acute Kidney Failure
Acute kidney failure can be caused by a variety of factors. Here are some of them:
1. Impaired blood flow to the kidneys
There are several conditions that can block blood flow to the kidneys and trigger acute kidney failure, namely:
- Liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis.
- Loss of blood or fluids from bleeding, severe dehydration, or severe diarrhea.
- Sepsis or anaphylactic shock.
- Heart disease, such as heart failure or a heart attack.
- Side effects of medications, such as aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen, or antihypertensive drugs.
- Severe burns.
2. Damage to the kidneys
Acute kidney failure can occur due to injury or damage to the kidneys themselves, for example due to:
- A buildup of cholesterol that blocks blood flow to the kidneys.
- Blood clots in the veins and arteries in the kidneys.
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is a disease caused by broken or damaged red blood cells.
- Scleroderma, which is a group of diseases that attack the skin and connective tissue.
- Tumor lysis syndrome, which is the destruction of tumor cells resulting in the release of toxins into the blood, causing kidney damage.
- Side effects of drugs, such as aminoglycoside antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and chemotherapy drugs.
- Severe infections, such as Weil’s disease due to leptospirosis.
- Exposure to toxins or heavy metals.
- The use of contrast fluid, which is the fluid used in X-rays or CT scans.
- Alcohol consumption and cocaine use.
3. Blockage in the urinary tract
Blockages in the urinary tract, including in the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or urethra, can cause fluid to back up into the kidneys. This condition can lead to acute kidney failure. Some diseases that can clog urine, namely:
- Tumors in the urinary tract, kidneys, or organs around the kidneys.
- Nerve disorders in the bladder (neurogenic bladder).
- Prostate enlargement.
- Side effects of surgery on the pelvis.
- Urinary tract adhesions due to scar tissue.
- Thrombosis in the renal veins.
Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Failure
Here are some factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing acute kidney disease:
- Undergoing intensive care due to severe illness.
- Over 65 years of age.
- Have a history of acute kidney failure or chronic kidney disease.
- Have diabetes, liver disease, heart failure, hypertension, obesity, or peripheral artery disease.
- Having cancer or undergoing cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy.
Symptoms of Acute Kidney Failure
Acute kidney failure can cause symptoms that appear within hours or days, namely:
- Decreased amount of urine and frequency of urination.
- Swelling in the legs (edema) due to fluid buildup.
- Hard to breathe.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Loss of appetite.
- The body gets tired easily.
- Heart rhythm disturbances.
- Rash or itching on the skin.
- Pain or a feeling of pressure in the chest.
- Bad breath.
- Tremors in hand.
- Pain in stomach and back.
- Pain or swelling in the joints.
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